1. The Oxford University
The University of Oxford has developed a vaccine name ‘ChAdOx1 nCoV-19’ in under three months. It is a common cold virus name adenovirus and is combined with the genetic material of the SARS-CoV-2 (the coronavirus causing COVID-19).
This will help to enable the body to identify the spike protein of the novel coronavirus. The vaccine candidate is now in a clinical trial phase-1 and medical volunteers have already been injected the vaccine and observing the side effect and physical condition.
2. Massachusetts-based Moderna vaccine
In the US, the Massachusetts-based biotech company Moderna is developing an RNA based vaccine in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The vaccine candidate mRNA-1273 has already completed phase 1 trials and the phase 2 trial are running. The RNA vaccine entering the human cells and carries the molecular instructions to make the viral protein. This viral protein is recognized by the body, the immune system of the body is triggered.
Beijing-based Sinovac Biotech
Chinese scientists are claiming to have successfully tested a vaccine for the novel coronavirus in monkeys. To conduct this experiment, the researchers injected the monkeys with the vaccine PiCoVacc which is made by Sinovac Biotech, a Chinese biopharmaceutical company. The monkeys were later exposed to novel coronavirus and it was found that those injected with a dose of the potential vaccine were largely protected from the virus. The vaccine is currently undergoing human clinical trials.
4. Pfizer and BioNtech vaccine
US-based Pfizer pharmaceutical company is developing an RNA based vaccine in collaboration with the German partner biotech company. They also started clinical trials of their vaccine candidate BNT162. Their vaccine candidate is based on specially designed messenger RNA and the trails for testing the vaccine are taking place in the USA and they plan to test the potential vaccine on 360 healthy volunteers.
DNA-based vaccine by Inovio Pharmaceuticals
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology company has developed a potential vaccine in its San Diego lab and is all set to begin the Phase 1 trial at the University of Pennsylvania. It is located in Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania. The vaccine’s name is INO-4800. Every candidate will receive two doses of the vaccine. They will take four weeks apart to check its efficiency and safety.
The BCG vaccine
The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) live-attenuated has developed a vaccine. The vaccine candidate is in phase 2/3. It is used against tuberculosis to boost the immune system. Clinical trials are conducted to test the effectivity and safety of this vaccine candidate in protecting people against COVID-19